Refuge Atelier Marcel Hastir – Paulus Newsletter

Host Country Belgium – PaulusRundbrief Nº495
When you drive from the Flemish countryside to the city of Brussels, you are greeted at the city limits by posters that welcome you in four languages – that inspired the title for this Paulus Newsletter’s theme: La Belgique – Pays d’Accueil ! … Belgium has always been a destination for the politically persecuted …

Refuge Atelier Marcel Hastir
In this newsletter ‘Zufluchtsort Atelier’ (Refuge Atelier) by Susanne Fexer on the atelier of Marcel Hastir in Brussels, Belgium, where he helped save the lives of countless people during the Nazi terror.

Credits | Links
Text based on quotes (translated) from the Editorial by Annick Dohet-Gremminger in the bimonthly Paulus newsletter (PaulusRundbrief N°495) of the Katholische Gemeinde Deutscher Sprache Brüssel Sankt Paulus – the Catholic Community German Language Brussels St. Paulus.

PaulusRundbrief N°495 is available digital from the archive at the Sankt Paulus site – http://www.sankt-paulus.eu

Film : Refuge Atelier Marcel Hastir – Paulus Newsletter (20191004) Michel van der Burg | miracles.media

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip

After the war , in 1946, the National Institute for War Documentation in Holland (Ref 1), known as the ‘RIOD’ (Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie) collected the footage filmed by the Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer spring 1944 in the Westerbork transit camp.

Not all of this RIOD raw film footage – 9 reels of film – was handed over in 1986 to the RVD (Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst) , the Dutch National Centre for Information, were these reels were glued together into the 4 parts (Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , and Acte 4) that have become known as the “Westerbork film” (Ref 2).

The story of research on this unique film footage published in the 1997 Dutch book ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ – Camp Westerbork filmed (Ref 3) – included findings of more film footage on which I reported before : a forgotten reel (Ref 4), an unknown reel (Ref 5) footage in a 1948 Polygoon newsreel (Ref 6, 7) and lost fragments on an extra 1948 Polygoon reel (Ref 8) .

Another ‘lost’ fragment was traced in clips the RIOD had extracted for use in the 60s dutch TV series ‘De bezetting’ (The Occupation) presented by RIOD director Loe de Jong, and directed by Milo Anstadt (Ref 9).

That ca 10 sec short film fragment “Loading toilet barrels in train wagon 8” (dutch : (Toilet tonnetjes inladen bij wagon 8) was identified in Episode 9 ‘De Jodenvervolging’ (The Jews Persecution) broadcasted first in 1962 via dutch public TV – and is posted unedited here.

References

1. Michel van der Burg. 2019 Aug 8. RIOD 1948 ~ National Institute for War Documentation in Holland. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2j

2. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 5. Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

3. ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen); ISBN 9023232658

4. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 15. Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2a

5. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 16. Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2b

6. Michel van der Burg. 2019 May 20. Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 6). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p1IheQ-JY

7. Michel van der Burg. 2019 Aug 6. Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 7). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2h

8. Michel van der Burg. 2019 Aug 7. Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 12). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2i

9. Wikipedia. The Kingdom of the Netherlands During World War II. (accessed 2019 Aug 13). URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Kingdom_of_the_Netherlands_During_World_War_II

Credit / Edit / Source info

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip.
Fragment “Loading toilet barrels in train wagon 8” unedited except for minor cropping.
Source NTS, De Bezetting, De Jodenvervolging 1962 (cat G42002C1) courtesy of dutch public broadcast NPO-VPRO.
Original footage (public domain) filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.
Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip (20190812) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Notes

20190813. Post updated with more background and more references.

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298

After the war , in 1946, the National Institute for War Documentation in Holland , known as the ‘RIOD’ (Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie) collected the footage filmed by the Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer spring 1944 in the Westerbork transit camp.

The RIOD glued fragments together probably, and also extracted fragments (Ref 1) . In 1948 parts of the Westerbork film were given on loan to the Dutch Polygoon-Profilti cinema newsreel company for use in one of the weekly Polygoon cinema news items (week 15) : the 1948 trial against Rauter – the ‘Proces Rauter’ . That cinema news was posted May 20 (20190520) as : Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 at settela.com (Ref 2).

Later , in 1958, this ‘RIOD film’ went on loan to the Dutch Filmmuseum (now EYE Film Museum) for conservation, and in 1986 that raw film footage – 9 reels of film – was handed over by the Filmmuseum to the RVD (Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst) , the Dutch National Centre for Information. The RVD conservator glued together these reels into the 4 parts (Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , and Acte 4) that have become known as the “Westerbork film”.

The RVD, however, had not received all footage from the Filmmuseum .
Research published in the 1997 Dutch book ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658) traced missing film fragments (Ref 3)

The 1948 Dutch Polygoon cinema news extracts were not all assembled back in the Westerbork film reels .
And not all footage given on loan for that ‘Polygoon news’ ended up in that news item.
The clips actually used in the 1948 week 15 Polygoon cinema newsreel on the Rauter trial were presented in yesterday’s post (20190806) : “Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News” (Ref 4).
Link : https://settela.com/2019/08/06/westerbork-film-fragments-1948-polygoon-news/

‘Lost’ fragments were traced on another reel of Polygoon 35 mm footage copied from the original 16 mm film (intended for cinema use) consisting of fragments both used in the news and surplus fragments not used in the news – including 4 ‘lost’ clips that were never reassembled in the Westerbork film. This 1948 Polygoon version #48298 (cat.nr. NO-48-09-001) is posted here. These are the 4 additional ‘lost’ clips :
1. Railway wagon 13 with man on ladder and camp leaders: 6 sec. (incl my 6 sec leader in this post starting at timeline ~ 4 min 1 sec)
2. Gemmeker and a soldier looking at the train: 4 sec. (incl my 6 sec leader in this post starting probably at timeline ~ 5 min 41 sec)
3/4. Gemmeker and a soldier, with a nurse in white uniform in the background (actually 2 scenes): 9 sec (incl my 6 sec leader in this post starting at timeline ~ 5 min 45 sec)

References

1. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 5. Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Jun 15). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

2. Michel van der Burg. 2019 May 20. Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 6). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p1IheQ-JY

3. ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen); ISBN 9023232658

4. Michel van der Burg. 2019 Aug 6. “Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News” : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 7). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2h

Credit / Edit / Source info :

Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298. Unedited footage.
Source 1948 Polygoon reel #48298 (cat.nr. NO-48-09-001) courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid
(public domain link http://in.beeldengeluid.nl/collectie/details/expressie/20424/false/true ) via portal OpenImages. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.
Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298 (20190807) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News


As discussed with the presentation of the full unedited Westerbork Film recently (Ref. 1), the collection of the film footage was started in 1946 by the ‘RIOD’ Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (National Institute for War Documentation).

According to the inventory of the RIOD from 1958 – when the film reels were handed over to the Nederlands Filmmuseum (Dutch Film Museum) – the Westerbork Film (https://youtu.be/8E-IWGjbGZM ) basically consisted of 9 film reels.

Over the years fragments have been extracted from the ‘Westerbork film’ on several occasions for screening in news or documentary (Ref. 2).

In 1948 ‘Polygoon’ Dutch cinema news (Polygoon Hollands Nieuws) got footage for use in the reportage of the trial in The Hague of Hanns A. Rauter, an Austrian who was the highest SS official in Nazi-occupied Holland and who was tasked with setting up the camps in Westerbork and other dutch cities, and the arrests , internment and deportation of Dutch Jews and other groups of Dutch people , Roma, Sinti, resistance workers.

I posted that entire Polygoon 1948 week 15 cinema news report earlier (May 20, 2019) on this site in the post entitled “Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948” (Ref. 3) – here the link https://settela.com/2019/05/20/westerbork-film-in-proces-rauter-1948/

The actual Westerbork film footage fragments (4 fragments) used in that ‘Proces Rauter’ cinema news item – Polygoon Hollands Nieuws week 48-15 (cat.nr. 002338-001) are posted unedited in this collage : “Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News” (20190806) .

References

1. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 5. Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Jun 15). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

2. ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen); ISBN 9023232658

3. Michel van der Burg. 2019 May 20. Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Aug 6). Short-link URL: https://wp.me/p1IheQ-JY

Credit / Edit / Source info :

Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News. Slightly cropped, otherwise unedited footage.
Source ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 Polygoon Hollands Nieuws week 48-15 (cat.nr. 002338-001 ) courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (Public Domain) via OpenImages. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.
Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News (20190806) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014


As discussed with the presentation of the full unedited Westerbork Film recently (Ref. 1), the collection of the film footage was started in 1946 by the ‘RIOD’ Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (National Institute for War Documentation).

According to the inventory of the RIOD from 1958 – when the film reels were handed over to the Nederlands Filmmuseum (Dutch Film Museum) – the Westerbork Film (https://youtu.be/8E-IWGjbGZM ) basically consisted of 9 film reels ; and that inventory also mentioned a 10th reel (‘reel 9a’) with scenes of a ‘church service’ and ‘disassembly workshop for motors’. That reel was never again mentioned after 1958, had disappeared, but was rediscovered in the Film Museum with catalog number F1015 during research in the 1990s (Ref. 2). That story and the footage F1015 ( https://youtu.be/-SmYdFLG5N8 ) was posted yesterday (Ref. 3).

That catalog of the Dutch Film Museum also mentioned a 2nd film reel (F1014) with hitherto unknown footage, described as in dutch ‘Restmateriaal, bevattende (o.a.) animatie met voetbal, voorstelling met muziek, het trekken van kiepwagens op rails met paarden. Afvalmateriaal, vermoedelijk origineel uitschot.’ – which translates to ‘Residual material, including (among other things) animation with football, performance with music, pulling tippers on rails with horses. Waste material, presumably original waste.’

Actually very interesting footage demonstrating that Rudolf Breslauer was filming the animation and intertitles (title cards) as listed in the film scenario (pore on that later in another post). Here that unedited (upscaled) footage of F1014.

References

1. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 5. Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Jun 15). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

2. ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen); ISBN 9023232658

3. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 15. Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Jun 16). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-2a

Credit

EN – Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014. Scaled, cropped, otherwise unedited footage F1014.
Source Beeld en Geluid (2-1167 | former cat.nr. F1014) , accessed at US Holocaust Memorial Museum (copy Film ID 2242 RG-60.2105 – License Free – Public Domain) , courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944.
Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014 (20190616) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0

Westerbork Film ~ full version (RVD)


The Westerbork Film – a silent film – is unique…the only authentic documentary footage filmed in a Nazi camp – a waiting room for death in the Netherlands for more than 100,000 Jews, and Roma, Sinti, and resistance workers. A documentary filmed 75 years ago, spring 1944, in the Westerbork transit camp, by the German-Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer, who had been working already some 2 years as a photographer in the camp. A ‘Kulturfilm’ commissioned by camp commander, SS-Obersturmbannführer, Albert Konrad Gemmeker, to convince the Gestapo headquarters of Westerbork’s vital production value.

The Westerbork camp had been set up by the Dutch government before the war in Holland, in 1939, as a central refugees camp for Jewish refugees from Nazi-Germany.
In 1942 , when the Nazi’s decided to start ‘Entjüdung’ of the Netherlands, they took over the camp and named it Polizeiliches Judendurchgangslager Westerbork , for use as central transit camp for deportation of mainly Jews, and Roma, Sinti, and resistance people to eastern Europe.

Rudolf Breslauer started filming March 1944 – around the same time the camp status changed to ‘Arbeitslager’.

This film on the daily life of the Westerbork prisoners was added in 2017 to the Memory of the World Register of Unesco.

Iconic is the image of Settela – the girl with the headscarf -between the wagon doors of the deportation train to Auschwitz.
These few seconds are shown in the 1 minute slow-motion film Settela at Settela.com.

Images of the deportation train have been used in many documentaries over the years – such as our 2012 documentary ‘Transport XX to Auschwitz’.

Actually , however, the Westerbork film has as yet not been presented online or elsewhere as a full film – only in parts : as either Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , or Acte 4 for download or for streaming separately , either in low quality, small format (and generally just Acte 1) or with a rough overall edit (color-exposure grading) resulting in loss of details.
I therefore decided to first present the full film , all 4 episodes , unedited except for cropping black bars, as the : Westerbork Film ~ Full version RVD…and later focus on adaptations.

What is known as the Westerbork Film , actually is a simple montage of the available raw film footage – 9 reels of film – handed over by the (Dutch) Filmmuseum in 1986 to the Dutch National Centre for Information (the Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst, RVD).
The RVD conservator glued together these available fragments – and this ‘product’ in 4 parts (Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , and Acte 4) has become known as the “Westerbork film”.
Reels number 1 and 2 were glued together in ‘Acte 1’, reels 3 and 4 in Acte 2, reels 5 and 6 in Acte 3, and reels 7, 8 and 9 in Acte 4 (see below).

Conservation of footage

In the early years after the war, the Westerbork film footage travelled via different routes, roughly, in part leaving the camp with ex camp commander Gemmeker, and another part ‘directly’ from the camp … to land partly in the nearby Drents Museum and partly in eg. the Department of Justice and next finally in a collection started in 1946 in the ‘RIOD’ Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (National Institute for War Documentation) – now ‘NIOD’ – Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies.
The RIOD glued fragments together probably, and fragments were extracted too, and lent for use eg. in the 1948 trial against Rauter, the trial against Gemmeker, and for use in the 60s dutch TV series ‘De bezetting’ (The Occupation) presented by Loe de Jong (journalist, historian, and RIOD director from 1945-1979). For conservation this ‘RIOD film’ went on loan in 1958 to the Filmmuseum (now EYE Film Museum), and in 1986 the footage went to the RVD.

The RVD did not receive all footage from the Filmmuseum – the fragments extracted by the RIOD for use in the trials and TV series were lacking and two reels just remained in the Filmmuseum vault.

Tracing extracted fragments , and the discovery of new images

Reel D1596 – The 1948 Dutch Polygoon cinema news extracts were not all assembled back in the Westerbork film reels – see the recent post 20190520 ~ Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 at settela.com .
Also , not all footage given on loan for that ‘Polygoon news’ ended up in that news item. That ‘Polygoon’ footage copied onto 35 mm film – both the used and non-used fragments – were kept in the Dutch Filmmusuem on a so-called reel number D1596.

Research published in the 1997 Dutch book ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658) – Reference 1 – traced the extracted film fragments, and further re-discovered film fragments with comparatively poorer quality on two reels – F1015 and F1014 :

Reel F1015 — F1015 (known till 1958 as reel 9a ; but actually the 10th reel of the Westerbork film) contains 9 scenes including 2 new scenes (not in the RVD Westerbork film): the religious service held March 5, 1944 in the Grote Zaal (Great Hall) and the scene of a woman on a ladder working on a signpost. This reel had remained in the Filmmuseum vault.

Reel F1014 seemed lost in the archives of the Filmmuseum and was denoted then ‘Afvalmateriaal/uitschot’ , that is ‘Trash’.

All footage is now kept at the Netherlands Institute of Image and Sound .

Below list of shots of the Westerbork Film (Ref. 2) :

Westerbork (Reel 1), (cat.nr. 02-1167-01), 16 mm, mute, 21’05 “

– 1. Inbound transport from Amsterdam, March 1944: 1 min 37 sec.
– 2. Inbound transport from Vught, March 20, 1944: 2 min 09 sec.
– 3. Outbound transport to Bergen-Belsen and Auschwitz, 19 May. 1944: 4 min 41 sec.
– 4. In and around the aircraft dismantling workshop, April / May 1944: 11 min 23 sec.

Westerbork (Reel 2), (cat.nr. 02-1167-02), 16 mm, mute, 21’41 “

– 5. Disassembly of old batteries and manufacture of new batteries, April / May 1944: 1 min 22 sec.
– 6. Separation of different layers of aluminum foil, April / May 1944: 1 min 22 sec.
– 7. Clothing Company, April / May 1944: 2 min 51 sec.
– 8. Toy factory, April / May 1944: 3 min 28 sec.
– 9. Manufacture of furniture, April / May 1944: 2 min 14 sec.
– 10. Metalworker / Forge worker, April / May 1944, 2 min 47 sec.
– 11. Manufacture of brushes, April / May 1944: 43 sec.
– 12. Shoe repair, April / May 1944: 1 min 38 sec.
– 13. Manufacture of handbags, April / May 1944: 1 min 09 sec.
– 14. Manufacture of soles and gloves, April / May 1944: 33 sec.
– 15. Weaving and repairing stockings, April / May 1944: 1 min 25 sec.

Westerbork (Reel 3), (cat.nr. 02-1167-03), 16 mm, mute, 18’03 “

– 16. Cufflinks Factory, April / May 1944: 1 min 16 sec.
– 17. Clothing, April / May 1944: 32 sec.
– 18. Laundry / ironing, April / May 1944: 1 min 18 sec.
– 19. Medical Laboratory, April / May 1944: 45 sec.
– 20. Dental Clinic, April / May 1944: 25 sec.
– 21. Unloading equipment for the construction of barracks / unloading trucks with bricks, April / May 1944: 1 min 33 sec.
– 22. Construction / installation of greenhouse and watering plants in greenhouse, April / May 1944: 1 min 46 sec.
– 23. By narrow gauge at Oranjekanaal / construction of jetty / unloading cargo ship with bricks / truck loading / return to camp, April / May 1944: 4 min 33 sec.
– 24. Visit to the farm, April / May 1944: 4 min 39 sec

Westerbork (Reel 4), (cat.nr. 02-1167-04), 16 mm, mute, 21’30 “

– 25.Visit on the farm (continued), April / May 1944: 2 min 30 sec.
– 26. Return / visit agriculture / plowing and planting potatoes, April / May 1944: 4 min 20 sec.
– 27. Return to camp / unloading truck bricks, April / May 1944:
– 28. Construction of the purification plant, April / May 1944:
– 29. Slaughtering and harvesting trees near Assen, April / May 1944: 4 min 50 sec.
– 30. Religious Service in the Great Hall, March 5, 1944: 6 sec.
– 31. Football match at the venue, April / May 1944: 2 min 04 sec.
– 32. Female gymnastics, April / May 1944: 1 min.
– 33. Gala evening and cabaret Bunter Abend in the Great Hall, April / May 1944: 4 min 05 sec.

Rudolf Breslauer and family

Rudolf Breslauer (1904-1944) was in Westerbork for over two and a half years with his wife Bella Weismann, daughter Ursula, and sons Mischa and Stephan.
In Sep 1944 they were transported to Auschwitz via Theresiënstadt, and murdered in the gas chamber, except Ursula who survived the war and went to Israel in 1948, where she and her husband Chaim Moses set up their own company. Her name has since been Chanita Moses – she has children and many grandchildren.

References

1 ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658
2. Gerard Rossing and Koert Boersma, Kamp Westerbork Gefilmd (1997), pp. 86-88.

Credit

‘Westerbork Film’ , montage of the Westerbork reels 1-4 (RVD cat.nrs. 02-1167-01, 02-1167-02, 02-1167-03, 02-1167-04 courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | OpenImages). Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Updates

20190605 – Updates including the other footage and more information will follow in both this post and new posts on the Settala.com site.